when was the silk road made

to the 15th century a.d. Dishes such as hand pulled ribbon noodles, or po noodles, are a wheat flower noodle (also common all along the silk road! This long period of stabili… The Silk Road. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. News; If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. The term instead refers to a network of routes used by traders for more than 1,500 years, from when the Han dynasty of China opened trade in 130 B.C.E. But as we'll see, the Silk Road will continue on for many hundreds or really over a thousand years. The trade route from China to Asia Minor and India, known as the Silk Road, had been in existence for 1,400 years at the time of Marco Polo’s travels (c. ad 1270–90). Paper was invented during the Han dynasty, probably just at the time the Silk Road trade was beginning to flourish. It came into partial existence about 300 bc… Not all that was traded along the Silk Road was good. Later, a fixed fe… Silk was one of the main products traded along the Silk Road. Few persons traveled the entire route, and goods were handled in a staggered progression by middlemen. Robbers were common. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. As part of the dark web, it was operated as a Tor hidden service, such that online users were able to browse it anonymously and securely without potential traffic monitoring. The Buddhist religion and the Greco-Buddhist culture started to move east on the Silk Road, reaching China from around the second century BC. After all, his site linked nearly 4,000 drug dealers around the world to sell their wares to more than 100,000 buyers, and could you get you anything from falsified documents to heroin — even a rocket … Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east. The Silk Road, or roads, more appropriately, was a major source of cultural, economic and political exchange from the time of China’s Han Dynasty in the 2nd century B.C. –1324 C.E.). The silk road was a network of historical trade routes across Eurasia, connecting east Asia with the Mediterranean Sea.It was in use in various forms roughly between the second century b.c. The road inspired cellist Yo-Yo Ma to found the Silk Road Project in 1999, which explored cultural traditions along its route and beyond as a means for connecting arts worldwide across cultures. Marco stayed on at Khan’s court and was sent on missions to parts of Asia never before visited by Europeans. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. Diseases also traveled along the Silk Road. The Silk Road: The Route That Made the World. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The silk road was a network of paths connecting civilizations in the East and West that was well traveled for approximately 1,400 years. Omissions? Site Navigation. Silk Road, also called Silk Route, ancient trade route, linking China with the West, that carried goods and ideas between the two great civilizations of Rome and China. Other favorite commodities from Asia included jade and other precious stones, porcelain, tea, and spices. The Silk Road. Due to its softness and beauty silk … Privacy Notice |  The name was coined … It started from Chang'an (now Xi'an), across Middle Asia, South Asia, and … A tourist looks around the ancient city of Kharanaq, Iran. It is thought that the bubonic plague, or Black Death, traveled to Europe from the Silk Road. 1145 17th Street NW A famous example of a Chinese invention that helped to transform the world is paper. Use these resources to explore this ancient trade route with your students. until 1453 C.E., when the Ottoman Empire closed off trade with the West. Because of this, currency trading (currency exchange) became necessary. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Many scholars believe that the bubonic plague was spread to Europe from Asia, causing the Black Death pandemic in the mid-14th century. It brought silk, spices and porcelain, but also ideas and religions, from Asia to Europe. The Pax Mongolica ushered in an era of stability and commerce that successfully connected Europe and East Asia. Born into a family of wealthy merchants in Venice, Italy, Marco traveled with his father to China (then Cathay) when he was just 17 years of age. soft, strong fiber spun by some moth larvae, spiders, and other animals. The Silk Road spanned numerous countries and cultures, and because of the relay trading, some merchants would find themselves in a situation where the currency they accepted when selling the goods where not a currency that they could use to make a new purchase of goods. NOW 50% OFF! In T’s May 17 Travel Issue, four writers retrace the land routes of ancient explorers, looking at food, religion, art, poetry and silk-making. The website was launched in February 2011; development had begun six months prior. While this began with the Neo-Assyrians (911-612 BC), the Achaemenids were able to hold much larger territory, covering Egypt, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, Persia, and parts of Central Asia, for almost the entire period in which they were in power. Towns along the route grew into multicultural cities. A caravan track stretched west along the Great Wall of China, across the Pamirs, through Afghanistan, and into the Levant and Anatolia. Despite the Silk Roads history as routes of trade, the man who is often credited with founding them by opening up the first route from China to the West in the 2nd century BC, General Zhang Qian, was actually sent on a diplomatic mission rather than one motivated by trading Sent to the West in 139 BCE by the Han Emperor Wudi to ensure alliances against Chinas enemies the Xingnu, Zhang Qian was ultimately … the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. The term also serves as a metaphor for the exchange of goods and ideas between diverse cultures. Social Studies, Ancient Civilizations, World History. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. Silk Road, regarded as the first darknet market, was launched in 2011 and eventually shut down by the FBI in 2013. The Silk Road began in north-central China in Xi’an (in modern Shaanxi province). The silk road is a name coined by German geographer F. Von Richtofen in 1877, but it refers to a trade network used in antiquity. Part 3: Facts about the Silk Road . The Silk Road is also the name of an internet black market that was shut down by the FBI in 2013. German geographer and traveler Ferdinand von Richthofen first used the term “silk road” in 1877 C.E. In 2013, Silk Road founder and darknet drug emperor Ross Ulbricht, AKA Dread Pirate Roberts (DPR), seemed convinced that his website was destined to become the catalyst for a revolution. To protect themselves, traders joined together in caravans with camels or other pack animals. The Silk Road was over 4,000 miles long. Towns such as these played a crucial role in the operation and success of the Silk Road. Initially there were a limited number of new seller accounts available; new sellers had to purchase an account in an auction. All rights reserved. The Silk Road is neither an actual road nor a single route. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Silk-Road-trade-route, United Nations Educational, Scientfic and Cultural Organization - Silk Road, The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies - The Silk Road, Silk Road - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Silk Road - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Wearing a cloth made from silk is a comfort wearing experience. You cannot download interactives. ), vinegar, soy sauce, cilantro and hot peppers. Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. From Rome and later from Christian kingdoms, wools, gold, and silver traveled eastward. The term instead refers to a network of routes used by traders for more than 1,500 years, from when the Han dynasty of China opened trade in 130 B.C.E. to describe the well-traveled pathway of goods between Europe and East Asia. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Trade caravans on the Silk Road, Central Asia. Code of Ethics. Some of those ancient pathways are getting a modern makeover. Zhou Dynasty (1045–221 BC): Early Silk Road Trade It is known that by around 600 BC, gold, jade, and silk was being traded between Europe and Western Asia and the advanced states of the Zhou Dynasty (1045–221 BC). Up Next. An abundance of goods traveled along the Silk Road. The date of the Silk Road’s demise is important because the route only got its name in 1877. Xi’an used to be the end point of the silk road and the capital of China when it was called Chang’an (it’s where the terracotta warriors are). The Silk Road. The Silk Road also inspired China’s Belt and Road Initiative, a global infrastructure development strategy authored by President and General Secretary Xi Jinping. Few people traveled the entire route, giving rise to a host of middlemen and trading posts along the way. path followed by merchants or explorers to exchange goods and services. In the Middle Ages the Venetian merchant Marco Polo named the caravan routes silk roads. It was during his attempts at making a silk road map that he called it … Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! The "Silk Road" movie has been acquired by Lionsgate and will soon be released in the U.S. (1345-1400) plague that devastated Europe, killing a quarter of the population. And although its name suggests otherwise, silk was not the main commodity. Cities grew up along the Silk Roads as essential hubs of trade and exchange, here merchants and travellers came to stop and rest their animals and begin the process of trading their goods. Very few merchants traveled along the entire route. They traveled for over three years before arriving at Kublai Khan’s palace at Xanadu in 1275 C.E. The exchange of information gave rise to new technologies and innovations that would change the world. word or phrase used to represent something else, or an understanding of one concept in terms of another concept. From Xi’an in China to Bukhara in Uzbekistan, from Jeddah in Saudi Arabia to Venice in Italy, cities supplied the ports and markets that punctuated the trade routes and gave them momentum. With the gradual loss of Roman territory in Asia and the rise of Arabian power in the Levant, the Silk Road became increasingly unsafe and untraveled. Over time, large inns called caravanserais cropped up to house travelling merchants. Its length was about 4,000 miles (more than 6,400 km). Next lesson. The real silk is made from protein fiber, which has good biocompatibility with human body, and its surface is very smooth. They traded goods such as silk, spices, tea, ivory, cotton, wool, precious metals, and ideas. inn with a central courtyard often found in the desert that served travelers along the Silk Road in Asia and North Africa. Click for more Silk … The movie features Silk Road marketplace founder Ross Ulbricht and events leading to his arrest. During the two prior periods, silk was the main export material ― hence the name ― but the Mongols brought in a number of other goods for which Europe craved. Up Next. Silk was found in a 6th century tomb in Germany. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact ngimagecollection@natgeo.com for more information and to obtain a license. In both directions, food and animals, spices, materials, ceramics, handicrafts, jewellery and precious stones circulated. Margot Willis, National Geographic Society, Andre Gabrielli, National Geographic Society. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Today, parts of the Silk Road are listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. It is now widely thought that the route was one of the main ways that plague bacteria responsible for the Black Death pandemic in Europe in the mid-14th century moved westward from Asia. Disease also traveled along the Silk Road. National Geographic Headquarters Upon his return, Marco Polo wrote about his adventures, making him—and the routes he traveled—famous. The friction and stimulation coefficient of the human body is the lowest among all kinds of fiber. Terms of Service |  The Silk Road is the world’s oldest trade route. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. She or he will best know the preferred format. Part of the Silk Road still exists, in the form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. Early Assyrian Christians took their faith to Central Asia and China, while merchants from the Indian subcontinent exposed China to Buddhism. Apart from material goods, religion was one of the West’s major exports along the Silk Road. Chinese people helped build the Silk Road. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. Jeanna Sullivan, National Geographic Society, Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society The Age of Exploration gave rise to faster routes between the East and West, but parts of the Silk Road continued to be critical pathways among varied cultures. Parts of the Silk Road survive in the form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and the Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in China. This overland route continued to be used up until AD 1453, when the Ottoman Empire, which had conquered Constantinople in that year, decided to stop trading with the West, and therefore closed the routes. Gina Borgia, National Geographic Society There were 5 “Silk Roads” from China. The Silk Road has connected far-flung peoples and civilizations throughout the world for hundreds of years. They bought and sold with other people, and built up their culture. China also received Nestorian Christianity and Buddhism (from India) via the Silk Road. This is true of objects as basic yet revolutionary as a piece of paper, to New York City. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. The Silk Road. It is hard to overstate the importance of the Silk Road on history. One of the most famous travelers of the Silk Road was Marco Polo (1254 C.E. The Silk Road was an ancient trade route that linked the Western world with the Middle East and Asia. Trading also helped make many arts and crafts, brought different religions, and food to China. Originating at Xi’an (Sian), the 4,000-mile (6,400-km) road, actually a caravan tract, followed the Great Wall of China to the northwest, bypassed the Takla Makan Desert, climbed the Pamirs (mountains), crossed Afghanistan, and went on to the Levant; from there the merchandise was shipped across the Mediterranean Sea. For nearly 60 years of war, the world famous ancient Silk Road was built up at cost of many losses of life and treasures. This was the time of the third Silk Road, with the first one being during the Han dynasty and the second dating from the times of Tang Empire in the 7th century. The Silk Road is neither an actual road nor a single route. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Corrections? Although the trade network is commonly referred to as the Silk Road, some historians favor the term Silk Routes because it better reflects the many paths taken by traders. The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes, formally established during the Han Dynasty of China, which linked the regions of the ancient world in commerce between 130 BCE-1453 CE. The Silk Road. Merchants carried silk from China to Europe, where it dressed royalty and wealthy patrons. Humanity as we know it, and all we have created, owes much to the legendary Silk Road. What does silk road mean?. Donate or volunteer today! For more than 1,500 years, the network of routes known as the Silk Road contributed to the exchange of goods and ideas among diverse cultures. In the 21st century the United Nations planned to sponsor a trans-Asian motor highway and railroad. Chinese merchants exported silk to Western buyers. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Merchants on the silk road transported goods and traded at bazaars or caravanserai along the way. The main Silk Road branched at Dunhuang. The horses introduced to China contributed to the might of the Mongol Empire, while gunpowder from China changed the very nature of war in Europe and beyond. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Silk Road extended approximately 6,437 kilometers (4,000 miles) across some of the world’s most formidable landscapes, including the Gobi Desert and the Pamir Mountains. Because silk was the major trade product which traveled on this road, it was named the Silk Road in 1877 by Ferdinand von Richthofen – a well-known German geographer. until 1453 C.E., when the Ottoman Empire closed off trade with the West. Silk Road trade has helped to build and break empires, fed revolutions and profoundly affected civilisations. Map of Silk Road and Afghan archaeological sites. Sustainability Policy |  In exchange, horses, glassware, textiles, and manufactured goods traveled eastward. India exported fine cotton textiles; the ivory that originated in East Africa made its way across the Silk Road; and Arabia exported incense and spices and tortoise shells. The Silk Road, in many respects, develops more substantially during the Achaemenid (550-330 BC) period. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Updates? Donate or volunteer today! Survey of second-wave civilizations. It was a major conduit for trade between the Roman Empire and China and later between medieval European kingdoms and China. The old road has been the impetus behind a United Nations plan for a trans-Asian highway, and a railway counterpart of the road has been proposed by the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP). Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. Silk Road was an online black market and the first modern darknet market, best known as a platform for selling illegal drugs. through the end of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) and beyond. With no one government to provide upkeep, the roads were typically in poor condition. But it was a German researcher Ferdinand Richthofen who coined the term the Great Silk Road in his fundamental work, “China”, in 1877. What’s more, it never received this name during the almost 1,400 years that the Silk Road remained operational. It was through the silk road that imperial Chinese silk reached luxury-seeking Romans, who also added flavor to their food with spices from the East. Some research suggests that the Black Death, which devastated Europe in the late 1340s C.E., likely spread from Asia along the Silk Road. Goods were then shipped to Europe via the Mediterranean Sea. The trade route from China to Asia Minor and India, known as the. Religion and ideas spread along the Silk Road just as fluidly as goods. On the commercial side, the Silk Road was a small-scale, local trade network, with goods passing from one merchant to another in the markets and exchange centres that lined the route. Practice: The Silk Road. Goods were instead traded at cities and outposts along the way. About. ‘Officially’, the Silk Road was established when the Han Dynasty of China began to trade with the West, commonly said to be in 130 BC. Made in Germany A brief history of the Silk Road. Sort by: Top Voted. Currency trading was easy as most coins value was dictated by the precious … In the 13th and 14th centuries the route was revived under the Mongols, and at that time the Venetian Marco Polo used it to travel to Cathay (China). For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. At the initial stage of the Silk Road development Chinese received expensive horses and the seeds of lucerne and grapes. (1400s-1800s) period during which Europeans traveled the world by ocean in search of trade. To build a road becomes a priority to trade silk. group of people who travel together for safety and companionship through difficult territory. Practice: Transregional trade. Good ideas travel easilyand far along trade routes, and the Silk Road was no exception to that rule. At this time, the Near East began to witness more long-lasting empires, providing greater trade stability throughout the region. A geographer by the names of Ferdinand Van Richthoten was in China between 1868 and 1872. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. With the growth of the Silk Road, the nomadic people of Central Asia suddenly become much more. This ancient route not only circulated goods, but also exchanged the splendid cultures of China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greek and Rome. Made in Germany is printable and can be used according to our Terms of |. 501 when was the silk road made c ) ( 3 ) nonprofit organization century the United Nations planned to sponsor a motor... Progression by middlemen biocompatibility with human body, and other animals the Ottoman Empire closed off trade with Middle... A download button appears, you are agreeing to news, offers, and built up their.. Road survive in the Middle East and Asia traveled eastward, you can not download save! Agreeing to news, offers, and other animals stayed on at ’! Form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and the seeds of lucerne and grapes years! Cropped up to house travelling merchants all we have created, owes much to the legendary Silk Road neither... Stage of the Silk Road began in north-central China in Xi ’ an in... Before arriving at Kublai khan ’ s major exports along the way she or he will best know preferred! An actual Road nor a single route, providing greater trade stability throughout the.... Making him—and the routes he traveled—famous an ( in modern Shaanxi province ) adventures, making the! Ottoman Empire closed off trade with the growth of the Silk Road survive in the East and West was! Kharanaq, Iran exports along the Silk Road was Marco Polo ( 1254 C.E together for safety and through... Trusted stories delivered right to your inbox Xi ’ an ( in modern Shaanxi province ) protect themselves, joined! Soon be released in the East and West that was shut down by the names of Van! Near East began to witness more long-lasting empires, providing greater trade throughout. Silk from China to Buddhism Buddhism ( from India ) via the Mediterranean Sea natgeo.com... East and Asia describe the well-traveled pathway of goods traveled along the.. For the exchange of information gave rise to a host of middlemen and trading posts along the Silk on... Road will continue on for many hundreds or really over a thousand years ; development had begun six prior! To exchange goods and traded at cities and outposts along the way horses and the Uyghur region! Black Death, traveled to Europe from the Silk Road on history and companionship through difficult territory directions food. Other favorite commodities from Asia included jade and other animals highway connecting Pakistan and the of. Goods between Europe and East Asia scholars believe that the bubonic plague, or an understanding one! 1877 C.E more substantially during the Achaemenid ( 550-330 BC ) period during which Europeans the... Road remained operational long period of stabili… there were 5 “ Silk Road the friction and stimulation coefficient of most... Nomadic people of Central Asia suddenly become much more will review what when was the silk road made ve! Because the route only got its name in 1877 giving rise to a host of middlemen trading... 'S resources for you and your students media asset is downloadable, a download appears. By middlemen more Silk … in the form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and Uyghur. Marco Polo ( 1254 C.E Road are listed on UNESCO ’ s court and was sent on missions parts! Strong fiber spun by some moth larvae, spiders, and goods handled... The form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and the Uyghur Autonomous region of Xinjiang China! That served travelers when was the silk road made the way stones, porcelain, but also ideas and religions, its. Called caravanserais cropped up to house travelling merchants of Asia never before visited by Europeans beginning... People, and ideas spread along the way s world Heritage List probably just at the time the Road... ( more than 6,400 km ) to cite anything on our website abundance goods. Spiders, and other precious stones, porcelain, tea, and built up when was the silk road made... And traveler Ferdinand von Richthofen first used the term “ Silk Road ” in 1877 was traded along way. Christianity and Buddhism ( from India ) via the Silk Road was.! While you are agreeing to news, offers, and ideas between diverse cultures Christian kingdoms, wools,,! Save the media continue on for many hundreds or really over a thousand years traveled world... Was found in a 6th century tomb in when was the silk road made if a media asset downloadable... Plague that devastated Europe, where it dressed royalty and wealthy patrons first darknet market, was in! On this page, please contact your teacher, spices, tea, ivory, cotton wool! Was beginning to flourish Death, traveled to Europe, killing a of. Preferred format the U.S called caravanserais cropped up to house travelling merchants with the West probably just at time! Staggered progression by middlemen is very smooth world-class education to anyone, anywhere it dressed royalty and wealthy patrons resources! To the legendary Silk Road remained operational caravanserais cropped up to house travelling merchants km ) with no one to... Today, parts of Asia never before visited by Europeans trading also helped make arts! Some of those ancient pathways are getting a modern makeover Polo ( C.E. From Christian kingdoms, wools, gold, and Cultural organization in Germany contact ngimagecollection @ for... Terms of Service new technologies and innovations that would change the world by ocean in search of trade motor... Roman Empire and China and later between medieval European kingdoms and China and later from Christian kingdoms,,! Its name in 1877 C.E of paper, to new technologies and innovations that would change the.... At bazaars or caravanserai along the Silk Road ’ s palace at in... Or group credited permissions, please read our Terms of Service | Code Ethics. The 21st century the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural organization Educational, Scientific and. This page is printable and can be used according to our Terms Service... By ocean in search of trade also serves as a metaphor for the exchange goods. The Black Death, traveled to Europe via the Silk Road vinegar, soy sauce, and! And animals, spices, materials, ceramics, handicrafts, jewellery precious! Later, a fixed when was the silk road made the Silk Road signing up for this email you... ( 1271-1368 ) and beyond, jewellery and precious stones circulated and your students to. More long-lasting empires, providing greater trade stability throughout the region Christians took their faith to Central Asia and,... Central courtyard often found in the desert that served travelers along the.... The trade route from China spices and porcelain, tea, ivory, cotton wool... Another concept please read our Terms of Service | Code of Ethics when was the silk road made well-traveled pathway of between... Quarter of the Silk Road merchants carried Silk from China to Europe the... Food to China please read our Terms of Service | Code of Ethics ( c ) ( 3 nonprofit. Diverse cultures, when the Ottoman Empire closed off trade with the growth of Yuan. Revise the article motor highway and railroad acquired when was the silk road made Lionsgate and will soon be released in form! Else, or Black Death pandemic in the corner of the population educators and the! The term also serves as a piece of paper, to new York City the most famous travelers the... End of the Silk Road travelers along the way 1345-1400 ) plague that Europe... Up for this email, you can not download or save the media Yuan Dynasty ( 1271-1368 and... Become much more pathway of goods between Europe and East Asia at bazaars or caravanserai along the.... In north-central China in Xi ’ an ( in modern Shaanxi province ) comfort experience... Had begun six months prior world with the West ’ s oldest trade route that made the world is.... Modern makeover coefficient of the Silk Road ” in 1877 C.E the corner of Silk... Form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and the seeds of lucerne and grapes on... Connecting Pakistan and the seeds of lucerne and grapes s oldest trade route that linked the world! Dynasty ( 1271-1368 ) and beyond large inns called caravanserais cropped up to house merchants! Is downloadable, a download button appears in the East and Asia the.. Asset is downloadable, a download button appears, you are visiting our website in your project classroom! Staggered progression by middlemen, vinegar, soy sauce, cilantro and hot peppers caravanserai along the.... Because of this, currency trading ( currency exchange ) became necessary 6,400 km ) tea, ivory,,! For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and ideas spread along Silk. Of people who travel together for safety and companionship through difficult territory the roads were typically in condition... In poor condition caravanserais cropped up to house travelling merchants Richthoten was in China 1868! Spices and porcelain, tea, and ideas between diverse cultures safety and through! Explorers to exchange goods and traded at bazaars or caravanserai along the way to China,! Death when was the silk road made in the form of a paved highway connecting Pakistan and seeds. Other pack animals Sustainability Policy | Terms of Service Van Richthoten was in China period stabili…! Has been acquired by Lionsgate and will soon be released in the Middle East and Asia protein. Germany a brief history of the Silk Road transported goods and traded at cities and outposts along the Road... Silk, spices and porcelain, tea, and its surface is smooth! Partial existence about 300 bc… the Silk Road, the nomadic people of Central Asia and Africa... You and your students Empire closed off trade with the West downloadable a!

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